R: Stem-and-leaf

I. Basic Stem-and-leaf

We will construct a stem-and-leaf graph of the

We will construct a stem-and-leaf graph of the

*dist*variable from the*cars*dataset. The following code gives us a chance to see the first 6 rows of the*cars*dataset.```
> ### Lets look at first 6 rows of cars data set
> head(cars)
speed dist
1 4 2
2 4 10
3 7 4
4 7 22
5 8 16
6 9 10
```

Next, we are going to create a new *d* variable that will represent the distance data from the *cars* dataset. Then we will use the *stem()* function to construct a basic stem-and-leaf plot of the *d* variable.

```
> # Create new variable d
> d = cars$dist
>
> # Construct stem-and-leaf of d
> stem(d)
The decimal point is 1 digit(s) to the right of the |
0 | 24004678
2 | 002466668822244466
4 | 002668024466
6 | 046806
8 | 04523
10 |
12 | 0
```

II.

*scale*ParameterThe

*scale*parameter can be used to expand the scale of the plot. A value of*scale=2*will split the stems and cause the output to be roughly twice as long as the default.```
> stem(d, scale = 2)
The decimal point is 1 digit(s) to the right of the |
0 | 24
1 | 004678
2 | 0024666688
3 | 22244466
4 | 002668
5 | 024466
6 | 0468
7 | 06
8 | 045
9 | 23
10 |
11 |
12 | 0
```

A value of *scale=4* will split the stems and cause the output to be roughly four times as long as the default.

```
> stem(d, scale = 4)
The decimal point is 1 digit(s) to the right of the |
0 | 24
0 |
1 | 004
1 | 678
2 | 0024
2 | 666688
3 | 222444
3 | 66
4 | 002
4 | 668
5 | 0244
5 | 66
6 | 04
6 | 68
7 | 0
7 | 6
8 | 04
8 | 5
9 | 23
9 |
10 |
10 |
11 |
11 |
12 | 0
```

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.